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A strain of this mutualistic soil bacterium has shown the ability to induce resistance against root-knot nematode in tomato plants.

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The presence of endophyte bacteria discourages nematode parasitism through activating ethylene and jasmonic acid pathways in the tomato plant. These hormone pathways increase the plant's resistance to colonization by organisms other than Rhizobium etli [9]. Members of this order of viruses have been shown to effectively control or eliminate salmonella in waste water.

These viruses are bacteriophages that attack salmonella and destroy colonies of the pathogen. While there is still many unknowns in the ecology of viruses and their real world application to water treatment, these viruses are promising possibilities to protect against salmonella in drinking water [7].

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These bacteria discourage the growth of virulent bacteria by producing antibiotics and colonizing root systems. The pathway for the anitbiotic properties is not well described,but might be similar to other two-component signalling system that regulate antibiotic production in other psuedomonads [2]. This fungus has been shown to effectively control mosquito populations which might make it invaluable in controlling malaria in areas where chemical insecticide resistance has developed. The fungus targets and cause high mortality in mosquito larvae particularly in the third instar.

This fungus coolonizes the exterior of the mosquito and grows into the hemolymph which causes death in weeks [3].

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Urban agriculture offers a possible method for local self-reliance by providing food security, employment, and other community services, but relies on the soil food web. This study compared biocontrol activity between vacant lots and urban gardens. Biocontrol activity was found to be higher in vacant lots. Ants mircrobial pathogens and nemtodes were the major contributors to biocontrol activity.

The elevated biocontrol activity in vacant lots indicates that the soil food web is resilient [6].

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The Risk Indicator System is a newly developed metric to assess environmental risks posed by pest control agents. It is based on persistence of the active ingredient, potential for dispersal, range of organisms that are affected, risk to vertebrate non-target species, and effects on the ecosystem. The authors suggest that RI could define low risk and reduced risk pesticides, but do not advocate using RI to determine acceptability of data waivers for regulatory purposes [8].

Bacteria in root zone are important in changing the soil agroecosystems, particularly rhizobacteria.

These bacteria have large effects on crop health, yield and soil quality. Plants selectively release exudates and leachates to sustain certain rhizobacteria. These bacteria create many secondary metabolites which enhance the availability of minerals and nutrients, improve nitrogen fixation, induce plant disease resistance, and improve plant health. Beneficial interactions stimulate crop yields and improve plant health [10].

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Emerging microbial biocontrol strategies for plant pathogens.

View Preview. Learn more Check out. Volume 71 , Issue 4 August Pages Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure. Previous Figure Next Figure. Log in with your society membership Log in with ESA. Email or Customer ID. Forgot your password? Forgot password? There is a growing body of evidence that demonstrates the potential of leaf and root-associated microbiomes to increase plant efficiency and yield in cropping systems.

Biological control of plant diseases

It is important to understand the role of these microbes in promoting growth and controlling diseases, and their application as biofertilizers and biopesticides whose success in the field is still inconsistent. This review focusses on how biocontrol microbes modulate plant defense mechanisms, deploy biocontrol actions in plants and offer new strategies to control plant pathogens.